西藏农村人居建筑多功能窗体研究
Research on a Feasible Multifunctional Window for Rural Buildings in Tibet
投稿时间:2021-06-25  修订日期:2021-09-10
DOI:
中文关键词:  西藏民居  多功能窗体设计  建筑节能  自然采光  保温遮阳一体化
英文关键词:Tibetan residential building, Multifunctional window design, Building energy saving, Natural lighting, Insulation and shading integrating
基金项目:十三五国家重点研发计划课题
作者单位邮编
邓源 湖南大学建筑学院 410000
徐峰 湖南大学建筑学院 410000
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中文摘要:
      中国西藏自治区具有太阳辐射强、日温差大等气候特点,为降低太阳直接辐射得热与室内外热量传递,藏区传统民居设计具有南北进深大、墙体厚等特征,从而导致室内自然采光不足、光舒适性弱等问题。综合考虑西藏地区气候特征以及传统民居建筑文化内涵,并解决原有窗体设计缺陷,一种多功能窗体设计方法与系统被提出,其主要由光伏发电板、反光板、保温板、转轴和转瓦等构成。基于所提出的设计方法,针对典型案例(多功能窗体)建立理论分析模型,展开夏季、冬季和过渡季3种运行模式的研究,并设计实验方案进一步验证结果。实验结果表明:与同尺寸传统窗体比较,该案例多功能窗体过渡季能在南向提升采光进深5倍且持续10小时,冬季提升采光进深2.5倍,使室内采光进深保持7.5m以上且持续9小时,夏季提高采光系数约0.5%;夏季平均月累计发电量为9kW·h,全年累计光伏发电量最高可达90kW·h;冬、夏季窗户内外表面温差分别提高3~8℃、2~4℃,且冬季窗户与墙体内表面温差降低2~4℃,窗户内表面温度更接近室内温度。该多功能窗体具有成本低廉、功能多样、效果显著、综合经济竞争性强的特点。多功能窗体设计方法能为其他更先进的建筑窗体设计开拓思路,并直接运用于西藏农村地区原有建筑窗体改造与新建建筑,具有重要的理论与实践意义。
英文摘要:
      Due to the climatic feature of strong solar radiation and large daily temperature difference in Tibet, China, traditional residential buildings mainly have the characteristics of large north-south depth and thick walls. This design method reduces the direct solar radiation effectively, however, it leads to several lighting problems, i.e. insufficient natural lighting, and weak light comfort, etc. To overcome design defect of the traditional window and taking climatic feature and regional characteristics in consideration, a feasible multifunctional window system was proposed and analyzed. The novel system is mainly composed of photovoltaic power generation panel, reflective panel, thermal insulation panel, and rotating shaft. For evaluating the proposed multifunctional window performance, a theoretical model was established in 3 operational patterns: summer, winter, and transitional season, and field tests were conducted for verifying the data accuracy. The results shown that, compared with traditional window of the same size, multifunctional window increases southern indoor natural lighting depth by 5 times for 10 hours in the transition season, increases the lighting depth by 2.5 times(above 7.5m) for 9 hours in winter, and increases daylight factor by 0.5% in summer; the average monthly power generation of photovoltaic power generation panel in summer is 9kW·h, and the annual photovoltaic power generation reaches up to 90kW·h. And multifunctional window increases the temperature difference between the inner and outer surfaces of window in winter and summer by about 3-8℃ and 2-4℃ respectively, reduces the temperature difference between the inner surface of the window and wall by about 2-4℃ in winter, and the inner surface temperature of the window is closer to the indoor temperature. Overall, the multifunctional window has the characteristics of low cost, diverse functions, remarkable effect and strong economic competitiveness. It is of important significance in other advanced window design and practical application.
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