李念平?覮,方雪苗,卫兆欣,申小杭,伍志斌.湘西地区冬季住宅热环境与老年人热舒适研究[J].湖南大学学报:自然科学版,2019,(7):123~128
湘西地区冬季住宅热环境与老年人热舒适研究
Research on Thermal Environment of Residences and Thermal ComfortSensation of Elderly in Rural Areas of Western Hunan in Winter
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  老年人  热环境  热舒适  农村住宅  热适应行为  APMV模型
英文关键词:elder people  thermal environment  thermal comfort  rural residence  adaptive behaviour  APMV model
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作者单位
李念平?覮,方雪苗,卫兆欣,申小杭,伍志斌 (湖南大学 土木工程学院湖南 长沙 410082) 
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中文摘要:
      为研究湘西农村地区冬季住宅热环境与老年人热舒适,2018年1月对当地50户住宅与65岁以上老年人进行测试与问卷调查.结果表明,冬季该地区住宅室内温度低,客厅、卧室与厕所的平均温度分别为8.3 ℃、8.5 ℃与7.1 ℃;不同建筑类型中,吊脚楼、木结构瓦房、砖墙建筑室内平均温度依次升高;室内早晚平均温度分别为7.5 ℃和8.5 ℃;分别有约70%与40%的老人有冷感觉,在厕所时产生冷感觉的老人比例最高.当地居民冬季热适应行为主要为增加衣物和使用火桶取暖,老年人冬季服装平均热阻为1.60 clo,作为局部加热装置,火桶对室内整体热环境的改善效果不明显,但对老年人热舒适改善效果明显.利用适应性平均热感觉指标(APMV)模型计算得到该地区老年人冬季对热环境的自适应系数λ=-0.26,舒适区温度范围为16.7~27.1 ℃.
英文摘要:
      In order to study the thermal environment of residences and the thermal comfort sensation of the elderly in the rural area of western Hunan in winter,tests and questionnaire surveys were performed in 50 local residences among the elderly who are over 65 years old in January 2018. The results show that temperature in this area in winter is low:the average temperature in living rooms,bedrooms and bathrooms are 8.3 ℃, 8.5 ℃ and 7.1 ℃, respectively,and indoor temperature of stilted building, wooden structure house and brick building rises successively. The average temperature in morning and evening are 7.5 ℃ and 8.5 ℃ respectively,corresponding with 70% and 40% of the subjects having cold feelings when they are indoors,and the proportion of the subjects who feel cold in the bathroom is the highest. Residents' adaptive behaviours in winter include adding clothes and using warm barrels, and the average thermal resistance of winter clothing for the elderly is 1.60 clo. As area heating devices,warm bareels can not improve the overall indoor temperature significantly, but they can greatly improve the thermal comfort sensation of the elderly. Using the Adaptive Predicted Mean Vote(APMV) Model, the adaptive coefficient of the elderly in this area in winter is calculated to be -0.26, and the comfort temperature range is 16.7~27.1 ℃.
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