To study the dynamic response law of high-speed railway bridge-rail system subjected to the action of near-fault impulse earthquake， an 8×32.7 m high-speed railway simply supported box girder bridge is taken as an example for the simple-supported beam form structure most commonly used on high-speed railway line. A bridge-rail model considering the interaction between simply supported beams and CRTS I type slab ballastless track is established. The effects of near-fault ground pulses with rupture front pulses，sliding pulses，and pulse-free near-fault on the bridge-rail system are discussed，as well as the changes of bridge-rail system dynamic response when fastener resistance changes. The results show that the stress and deformation rules of the track under the action of the three pulse types of ground motion are consistent. The pulse-type ground motion increases the track stress and displacement by about 20% when compared with the pulse-free ground motion. Compared with the track system，the pier is more sensitive to the type of pulse. Under the action of pulse and slip pulse before the rupture，the maximum displacement of the pier top is increased by 106.6% and 148.6%，respectively，when compared with the non-pulse ground motion. The bending moment of the pier bottom and the shear force are also increased significantly，and the impact of the pulse type on the bridge structure should be considered in the seismic design of high-speed railway bridges. When the longitudinal resistance of the fastener is increased from 5 kN/group to 15 kN/group，the maximum displacement of the pier top is reduced by 10%，but the peak stress and displacement of the track are about twice the original values.